PureWave Hydrogen

Hydrogen

Not all Hydrogen is Equal

Not all hydrogen is equal

Percent of Global Hydrogen

H2 Gray

80%

H2 Brown

20%

Established technologies, high greenhouse gas emissions

H2 Blue

<1%

Some greenhouse gas emissions; CCS expensive, not yet widely implemented at scale.

H2 Green

miniscule

Not economically feasible for mass market adoption

NATURAL HYDROGEN is a newly discovered geological source of sustainable and non-fossil energy

Hydrogen is generated by a natural geochemical process inside the Earth’s crust, and because of this it is a sustainable and inexhaustible source.

Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe, and it could play an essential role in tomorrow’s energy mix — from fueling cars, trains, trucks and ships, to generating electricity and powering industry.

Currently, the majority of the world’s industrial hydrogen is derived from natural gas (methane) and issued for fertilizers, as well as in the iron, steel, and space industries. However, the traditional method of extracting hydrogen from natural gas also creates around 10 tons of CO2 for every ton of hydrogen produced. Therefore, we needed to find a way to produce it that is less carbon intensive.

Generation

1. Radiolysis

Trace radio active elements in rocks emit radiation that can split water. The process is slow, so ancient rocks are most likely to generate hydrogen.

2. Serpentinization

At high temperatures, water reacts with iron-rich rocks to make hydrogen. The fast and renewable reactions, called serpentinization, may drive most production.

3. Deep-seated

Streams of hydrogen from Earth’s core or mantle may rise along tectonic plate boundaries and faults. But the theory of these vast, deep stores is controversial.

Loss mechanisms

4. Seeps

Trace radioactive elements in rocks emit radiation that can split water. The process is slow, so ancient rocks are most likely to generate hydrogen.

5. Microbes

At high temperatures, water reacts with iron-rich rocks to make hydrogen. The fast and renewable reactions, called serpentinization, may drive most production.

6. Abiotic reactions

Streams of hydrogen from Earth’s core or mantle may rise along tectonic plate boundaries and faults. But the theory of these vast, deep stores is controversial.

Extraction

7. Traps

Trace radioactive elements in rocks emit radiation that can split water. The process is slow, so ancient rocks are most likely to generate hydrogen.

8. Direct

At high temperatures, water reacts with iron-rich rocks to make hydrogen. The fast and renewable reactions, called serpentinization, may drive most production.

9. Enhanced

Streams of hydrogen from Earth’s core or mantle may rise along tectonic plate boundaries and faults. But the theory of these vast, deep stores is controversial.

The Rainbow system

This rainbow system highlights the important fact that not all types of hydrogen are equally environmentally friendly. 

Green

Blue

Grey

Brown

Turquoise

Purple

Pink

Red

White

Green Hydrogen is produced through water electrolysis process by employing renewable electricity. The reason it is called green is that there is no CO2 emission during the production process. Water electrolysis is a process which uses electricity to decompose water into hydrogen gas and oxygen.

Blue Hydrogen is sourced from fossil fuel. However, the CO2 is captured and stored underground (carbon sequestration). Companies are also trying to utilize he captured carbon called carbon capture, storage and utilization (CCSU).Utilization is not essential to qualify for blue hydrogen. As no CO2 is emitted, so the blue hydrogen production process is categorized as carbon neutral.

Grey Hydrogen is produced from fossil fuel and commonly uses steam methane reforming (SMR)method. During this process, CO2 is produced and eventually released tothe atmosphere.

Black or Brown Hydrogen is produced from coal. The black and brown colors refer to the type bituminous (black) and lignite(brown) coal. The gasification of coal is a method used to produce hydrogen. However, it is a very polluting process, and CO2 and carbon monoxide are produced as by-products and released to the atmosphere.

Turquoise Hydrogen can be extracted by using the thermal splitting of methane via methane pyrolysis. The process, though at the experimental stage, remove the carbon in a solid form instead of CO2 gas.

Purple Hydrogen is made though using nuclear power and heat through combined chemo thermal electrolysis splitting of water.

Purple Hydrogen is generated through electrolysis of water by using electricity from a nuclearpower plant.

Red Hydrogen is produced through the high-temperature catalytic splitting of water using nuclear power thermal as an energy source.

White Hydrogen Refers To Naturally Occurring Hydrogen.

White (Natural) hydrogen is a renewable source of clean energy. It is continuously generated in the depths of the Earth via inorganic reactions that have been active for millions of years and will remain so in the future. Therefore it is not necessary to consume energy to generate natural hydrogen, unlike all other types of hydrogen. For this reason natural hydrogen (also called white hydrogen) will be cheaper to produce than all current alternatives(e.g. gray, green, blue, etc.). Its use will not generate any pollution and will reduce the carbon footprint of the transportation and chemical industry.